VA adds the breakpoint condition if "($tid == 1 && $pid == 1 && ...)" to all breakpoints if you choose "Skip All Breakpoints". I suppose it just adds a condition that is never TRUE. Just adding if "($pid == 1 && ...)" would work in VS2015 without error messages. Also it might be better to use the uppercase $PID.
Conclusion so far is: - works on VS2017 - doesn't work on VS2015 that attaches to x64 - doesn't work on VS2015 that attaches to 32-bit process if "Use native compatibility mode" debugger option is checked (the default is unchecked)
tbrammer is currently happy with VS2017 workaround, but we will see if there is something that can be done for VS2015.